Category Archives: Information Literacy

Should access to the internet be a fundamental right…for everyone?

(Image c/o gianni on Flickr)

Overcoming the divide between the richest and the poorest in society has always been a significant challenge. The wealthiest in society have always been in a position to afford the services required to improve their quality of life: better healthcare, better education etc etc. In the twentieth century, particularly post-1945, there were renewed efforts to address this disparity through the introduction of the National Health Service, a functioning welfare system and free secondary education for all pupils.

Between 1910-1979, the divide between the wealthiest and the poorest in the UK dropped significantly, particularly after 1936. Since that period, however, the trend has been in the opposite direction as the wealthiest take a larger share of income than at any point since 1940. This widening of the divide between the richest and the poorest is, in part, a symptom of the watering down of the post-1945 social contract, characterised by a move away from the primacy of society towards the primacy of the individual. Technological advances have, however, provided an opportunity to close this gap once more.

However, as yet, this potential has yet to be realised, not least due to the expense of the technology and the skills required to exploit it. Indeed, whilst the impact of easier access by the public to relevant information has been felt to a degree, the continued existence of a digital divide hampers progress towards the more equitable society the technology can help to deliver.

At present, there are around 7 million people in the UK who have never accessed the internet (the number without access is obviously higher). The divide presents a number of difficulties for those without access to the internet. For example, it can hamper their child’s performance at school. It can put them at a disadvantage when it comes to their health and, as preventative care pushes up the agenda, the implications for the unconnected are stark. It can affect them economically, both in terms of the savings they would make and as a consequence of welfare reforms by the UK coalition in pushing social security online. Closing this divide can, therefore, improve life chances and help to shrink the gap between the richest and the poorest (it obviously won’t eliminate the gap on its own, that would require more wide-ranging action).

As government services have shifted online, the commercial potential for ever faster broadband has begun to be realised and the economic benefits of getting everyone online are talked up, there has been an awareness of the importance of addressing the divide between those connected to the internet and those that are not. However, one group is often excluded when it comes to identifying and supporting the so-called ‘information poor’ – prisoners.

Towards the end of last year, the Prison Reform Trust and Prisoners’ Education Trust released a report on computer and internet access in prisons. Through the Gateway: How Computers Can Transform Rehabilitation [PDF 1.46MB] explores the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in prisons and its potential impact on rehabilitation. Based on a survey of prisons sent to all prison governors and directors in England and Wales supported by the National Offender Management Service (NOMS), a focus group of prisoners’ families, prison visits and expert roundtables, the report argues that drastic change is needed and access to ICT should be reconsidered.

(Image c/o Marc Soller via Flickr.)

Now, some might argue that if you are in prison you lose your liberty and therefore any right to access services such as the internet. However, whether we like it or not, many prisoners are only removed from society on a temporary basis, they will have to be reintegrated at some point. As such, we need to consider their return to society, their re-integration and, of course, provide the necessary support to help ensure that they do not re-offend. As the Prison Trust underline in their coverage of the report on their website, nearly half of all prisoners (47%) are reconvicted within a year of their release. Furthermore, in 2011-12, “just 27% of prisoners entered employment on release from prison”. The challenge for us as a society is to reduce the re-offending rate and ensure that prisoners are not pushed to the edges of society once they have finished serving their sentence.

Changes to the welfare system are in danger of making integration increasingly difficult for those released from prison. With the government pushing job seekers online to find work or suffer associated penalties, it is more crucial than ever that prisoners are not left behind and therefore placed at a serious disadvantage when it comes to finding work. The scale of the problem is reinforced in the report:

47% of prisoners say they have no qualifications. This compares to 15% of the working age general population in the UK.

21% of prisoners reported needing help with reading and writing or ability with numbers.

With such a lack of skills, it is clear that significant support is needed in getting prisoners online, preparing them for work outside of prison and ensuring they are not left behind or penalised by the government’s new social security regime. When almost a half of prisoners have no qualifications whatsoever and 1 in 5 need help with reading and writing, there are clearly significant barriers ahead in terms of their re-integration into society. As two prisoners noted in the report:

“Here’s why you need internet for resettlement: to keep up with changes outside – job criteria can change while you’re inside; checking on housing by particular postcodes – co-ordinated with your conditions of release.”

“It’s a bit of a risk – being linked into the internet – but the bigger risk is sending people out who are not able to cope and who cannot find gainful employment.”

The provision of internet access to prisoners can not only help develop their skills and ensure they are not left behind after they have served their sentence, it can also help to further their education. The growth of Massive Open Online Learning Courses (MOOCs) provides the opportunity for opening up education for all free of charge (provided they are online of course). Why should those with the skills to utilise the internet be prevented from furthering their education and helping to increase their chances of employment after their release? If we are to be serious about reducing re-offending rates, then shouldn’t we be looking at all the options and see an internet connection not as a luxury, but an important tool in helping to ensure prisoners can be re-integrated after serving their time?

Prison libraries could play a key role in ensuring access is provided and the technical skills of prisoners are developed. However, they are hampered by a number of restrictions placed upon them. Librarians working in prisons are severely restricted as a result of their equipment being connected to a tightly controlled prison network. Many sites are blocked, including blogs, social media and sometimes government websites. Although such restrictions are in place, prisoners are still not permitted to use the library computer because it is connected to the internet. Instead, prisoners are only provided access to standalone computers that are not connected to the internet and only permit the user to play games or write legal letters. That is, of course, if their prison is lucky to have any computers at all.

Whilst there may be legitimate concerns about the kind of material certain prisoners may attempt to access, such restrictions are not helpful in trying to ensure their reintegration into society when their sentence is served. The opportunities available online to learn new skills, not to mention the opportunity to learn basic ICT skills with the help of a trained prison librarian, can play a significant role in reducing the re-offending rate and provide former prisoners with the opportunity to make a more positive contribution to society. As Nick Hardwick, HM Chief Inspector of Prisons, notes in the report’s foreword:

“We can’t go on with prisons in a pre-internet dark age: inefficient, wasteful and leaving prisoners woefully unprepared for the real world they will face on release. I have not met one prison professional who does not think drastic change is needed.”

If we want to reduce reoffending and ensure a more equitable society, then we need to address the digital divide that exists not only across our communities, but between our communities and those that have been excluded from them. It will prove controversial with many, but as the world rapidly changes around us, we need to ensure that those excluded can be reintegrated into a world that can be very different from the one they were excluded from.

Information literacy issues in the real world

You probably don’t think that it’s too hard to find good, reliable sources for information online. You may well think that, because you’ve developed excellent information seeking and verifying skills yourself. You’ve learned how to assess all sorts of online resources, check them for accuracy and bias, and decide for yourself whether they are trustworthy. This is an important skill in the modern environment, and is known to information professionals as “information literacy”. Throughout the education sector and the public library sector, information professionals are working to impart these skills to both children and adults, to enable those individuals to make good decisions on the accuracy and reliability of the information they access online. Being equipped with good information literacy skills means you can make informed and reasoned judgements on information you encounter.

The Australian Environment Minister, Greg Hunt, unfortunately appears not to have developed these skills regarding assessing the veracity of resources found online. Despite the many problematic issues associated with some of the information available on the site, he has recently declared that when checking whether there was a link between climate change and bushfires in Australia, he “looked up what Wikipedia says”. Now, on the face of it, this is funny – a government minister has relied on a site that’s notorious for its capacity to be maliciously or entertainingly edited to give misinformation for his facts, and now he looks slightly foolish!

However, what is of more concern is the extent to which Mr Hunt appears to be unaware of the fact that Wikipedia is not regarded as an authoritative source for information, particularly in regards to contentious or political issues. As climate change is a highly politicised topic, the most reasonable approach to understanding whether there is a link between climate change and bushfires would be to check for research on the topic in scientific publications. These journal articles would have been peer reviewed and the science rigorously checked, meaning that the conclusions drawn within them would have a strong basis in verifiable facts. Somehow, Mr Hunt has managed to avoid all the times throughout his school and work career when information professionals attempted to teach him information literacy skills, and has made a poor choice when selecting a source to support his viewpoint. Luckily, this sort of cherry-picking of unreliable information is obvious, due to the fact that he cited Wikipedia as his source, and this undermines the strength of his argument. But this use of Wikipedia as a source for information hints at a concerning underlying issue – are the people in power actually equipped to assess the information they’re being given? They are bound to be bombarded with a large volume of information on all sorts of topics: do they have access to information professionals who can either help them to learn how to effectively assess the veracity of sources, or who can do this checking for them?

It appears not: this letter from the Australian Library and Information Association was issued in response to Greg Hunt’s statement. It shows that staffing cuts in government and other libraries mean that ministers do not have the level of access to skilled information professionals that they should. This means that those ministers are now having to rely on their own information assessment skills, and in this particular case, those skills have fallen far short of those which the public could reasonably expect a government representative to have. Without those skills, it appears that government ministers are liable to making mistakes in important policy areas, by potentially basing their decisions on unreliable sources. It is important that the people in these powerful positions are equipped with the skills which will to enable them to deal appropriately with the information they encounter, and make good, well informed decisions. Information literacy is not an optional skill, it’s an essential requirement in order to be able to work effectively, and one which even government ministers must develop if they want their views on topics to be respected, rather than be laughed at!

By Jennie Findlay