All posts by The Informed Team

Informed looking for new admins to run the site

Today marks another birthday for Informed. The site has been rather quiet for a while, reflecting the changes in workload and circumstances that our team has experienced. We feel very proud of what we have done with Informed and of the high quality articles our volunteer authors have written for the site. We identified a gap in the blogosphere and created something to fill it.

Now we face the reality that our founders and admins are simply too busy to give the site the attention that it deserves to ensure a flow of articles coming through. But that doesn’t necessarily mean the end of Informed. It was an idea we came up with initially but we spoke to the library and information community about what they needed and wanted from it. It has always been for the information community and beyond.

So if anyone is interested in taking over the running of the site, please get in touch and we can discuss handover. If we can’t find anyone to take it over then we would begin a managed shut down of the site over the next year.

We thank you all for supporting Informed throughout the years, writing blogs for us, reading the posts, having interesting discussions in the comments sections and beyond. A big thank you to our moderators who have checked all the articles that we’ve published and to our volunteer judges who helped us to decide on the Informed Peer Recognition Award winner. It’s been such a great experience creating, launching and nurturing Informed.

Spotlight on The News Librarian: what did we do and what have we lost?

This year’s Best Picture Oscar went to the film Spotlight, about an investigative journalist team uncovering a scandal in the Boston Catholic church in the 1990s. Among the techniques which helped them make connections, find evidence and uncover new aspects, were searches through press cuttings archives and cross referencing library directories. Vaguely seen in the film are news librarians, retrieving microfilm and hard copy press cuttings files. Unsurprisingly, the heroes of the film were the journalists themselves, the librarians silent service personnel. Here, Katharine Schopflin shares her experience of working as a news librarian.

As a news librarian myself in the early 2000s, I can tell you that librarians did a lot more than just fetching and carrying. For a start, the press cuttings files themselves were compiled by librarians marking articles with relevant classification terms so they could be found again. To do so took expert news knowledge, the ability to analyse and disambiguate at high speed and an understanding of how future questions would be asked. Secondly, news libraries kept back copies of directories precisely so that they could be mined for information. The journalists in Spotlight descend to a basement storeroom and found them on the shelves, in order, where they expected to. Their life had they been kept in the newsroom would have been somewhat shorter.

And news librarians actually did research themselves. The late 1990s was the great era of the information professional as news researcher. Paula Hane’s Super searchers in the news (Information Today, 2000) interviewed ten librarians based in US news organisations. They discussed the questions they get asked, the stories they had researched, the skills they used and the resources they relied on. All indicated a close working relationships with journalists, investigative or otherwise, who clearly valued their skills and knowledge of resources. In some cases the librarian worked in the newsroom itself, in a role recognised as quasi-journalistic. This wasn’t a US phenomenon either. Sarah Adair’s edited collection Information sources in the press and broadcast media (Bowker Saur, 1999) demonstrated that specialist information searching skills were increasingly valued at a time when many journalists felt mistrustful or overwhelmed by the world wide web. News librarians understood where to look, how to evaluate and when to go to trusted sources such as hard copy reference or online databases which charged a hefty per-use tariff.

Image credit: 'New technology will slash cost of preserving written heritage' by University of Salford Press Office
Image credit: ‘New technology will slash cost of preserving written heritage’ by University of Salford Press Office

In the first decade of the twentieth century, a combination of panic and opportunity meant that library after library closed across the UK and US. Panic was caused by a succession of events: the dot.com crash, particularly affecting publications which had been taken over by tech companies (AOL Time Warner, which announced the closure of the Time Life editorial research library in June 2001 was a noted example), recession, the after-effects of the September 2001 World Trade Center attacks (which affected advertising revenue), and the decline in paper circulation as online news took over the eyes and interest of readers. In response, news organisations sought cuts wherever they could. As research resources became increasingly available via web interfaces directly accessed by journalists themselves, the opportunity to make savings by closing the library seemed obvious. In 2010, the professional association representing news librarians in the UK, the Association of UK Media, was wound up because so few of its members now worked in the sector.

Today, the news librarian is a rare creature indeed. There are some pockets of information professional work in news organisations in areas such as rights, licensing, media cataloguing and management and even research (see Katy Stoddard’s account of her work at the Guardian). But on the whole, the notion that an information professional has special skills essential to publication of unbiased, well-informed, original and accurate journalism has disappeared. Either organisations feel ‘it’s all on the web’ or a library was a luxury or something simply not relevant. Librarians are not the only casualty of a very real crisis in the modern media: increasingly fewer journalists work for newspapers and, as Nick Davies depicts in his excellent Flat Earth News (Chatto and Windus, 2008), much of the content produced by our news outlets rehashes the contents of press releases. Far less of the type of investigative journalism depicted in Spotlight takes place.

Nobody is arguing that librarians should be employed to classify hard-copy press cuttings when the most-heavily used content is available online, powerful and evocative as a hard copy press cuttings file is. And the day-to-day life of the news librarian was unglamorous and could be unrewarding. Yet the loss of an entire sector of a profession is no small matter. As I write, public librarians are active in protest to try and ensure that there will be professional jobs for them to take on in the future. Professions ensure standards, encourage training, provide best practice and support each other with knowledge, advice and shared resources.

newspaper clippings laid out on a table
Image credit: ‘newspaper clippings table’ by
Carmichael Library

News librarians were the people in their organisation who excelled at finding information, identifying sources and, as information increasingly became available in chaotic and unmediated formats via the web, establish the authority and reliability of a source. Many journalists cared about these things, but only the librarians took on the responsibility to be the filter which stopped short-cuts and lazy research. Perhaps this is the real tragedy of the loss of the news librarian, what it says about the journalism available to us. Nobody working in the field can afford to apply the types of professionalism a news librarian could bring to the job. This is unlikely to change as news organisations attempt to solve the conundrum of how to make their readers pay for professionally-written content.

The demise of the news librarian is not, therefore, simply a historical event, equivalent to the loss of paper-based accounts ledgers or a closed coal mine. It points to two depressing conclusions about the media we read, watch and listen to. First, the very connection of information skills with journalism has been lost. Those people who train and practice to connect people with high-quality information are no longer of interest to those who make the news. Secondly, information skills have become redundant in the media because few media outlets care about professional standards. It’s not just librarians who aren’t carrying out in-depth research, evaluating sources and finding the unfindable: nobody is.

I recently attended a Media Society event at which senior journalists discussed the future of news content. They agreed that, if journalism is to prove itself as important in society, more high-quality investigative journalism of the sort depicted in Spotlight should take place. I would like to think that, if it happens, the support and skills of information professionals would be recognised as offering value to the process. However, I fear the link between our profession and the news has probably been severed irrevocably.

First published in CILIP Update (magazine of the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals, www.cilip.org.uk), June 2016, pp. 28-30, and reproduced by kind permission.

Investigatory powers bill and libraries

This blog post was contributed by Ian Clark from the Informed team and Lauren Smith, a Research Associate at the University of Strathclyde.

The news that libraries may be forced to hand over personal data to the security services raises serious ethical questions regarding the confidentiality of what people choose to read. A fundamental ethical principle of the library and information profession is the freedom of individuals to access information and read whatever they choose in confidence. The Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP) is very clear on the obligations to library users. Its ethical principles state the need to demonstrate:

Commitment to the defence, and the advancement, of access to information, ideas and works of the imagination.

Such a principle is undermined if the government is known to be able to access data on the “information, ideas and works of the imagination” that individuals access. The chilling effect of such a move would inhibit individuals from accessing whatever they want without fear of reprisals from the state.

Furthermore, CILIP has also endorsed the Council of Europe’s “Public access to and freedom of expression in networked information: Guidelines for a European cultural policy”. These guidelines are very clear that what users choose to access should be treated as confidential and that the privacy of users should be paramount:

1.2 It is the responsibility of individuals using Public Access Points to decide for themselves what they should, or should not, access.

1.3 Those providing Public Access Points should respect the privacy of users and treat knowledge of what they have accessed or wish to access as confidential.

The proposals laid out by Theresa May seriously threaten these basic ethical principles. If the state is able to access data on what individuals have been reading in public libraries their freedom to read and access what they choose is seriously compromised.

Ironically, these proposals come at a time when libraries and librarians in other parts of the world are emphasising the importance of ensuring that individuals can access what they wish in confidence. In December last year, librarians were in uproar when Haruki Murakami’s borrowing record was published in a Japanese newspaper. In response, the Japan Librarian Association re-affirmed that:

“Disclosing the records of what books were read by a user, without the individual’s consent, violates the person’s privacy.”

In the face of similarly intrusive legislation (the PATRIOT Act) in the United States, some libraries have begun purging records of inter-library loan requests to protect users’ privacy. As yet we have not seen comparable moves by the profession in the UK, but the increasingly aggressive rhetoric from the government regarding what and how individuals seek out information is clearly in conflict with the values we espouse as a profession.

Libraries should not distinguish between books and web activity. What individuals read and access online should be as private and as confidential as their book borrowing habits. Although we do not have the constitutional protections to intellectual liberty that American library users are afforded under the First Amendment, both professional organisations (such as CILIP) and political bodies (Council of Europe) are very clear that what a user accesses in a library should remain confidential. The proposals put forward by Theresa May threaten these basic principles of intellectual freedom and liberty and will put intolerable pressure on public libraries. Our government’s desire to undermine these principles is not only dangerous, but will also seriously undermine the bond of trust between public libraries and their users.

Informed’s 2016 plans

The end of 2015 was a hectic one for all of us. We had our annual review in which the whole team gets together to review the year that has just passed and look ahead to the coming year. As a result of that discussion, we decided to revert to our old structure of having Administrators (who oversee the running of the site, commissioning content etc) and Moderators (who check submissions against our guidelines). As we are a team of volunteers, the time we can dedicate to Informed fluctuates depending on how busy we are at work, our other voluntary commitments and life! Reinstating these two roles allowed two of our (now) Moderators – Kevin and Helen – who had taken on a lot of other commitments in the year, to continue working with us.

One of our Admins, Stuart Lawson, stepped down from his role in Informed. Anyone who even vaguely knows Stuart knows how many projects he is involved in and how much of his time he dedicates to our profession, from helping to set up and edit the Journal of Radical Librarianship, to extensive work for the Open Access movement. Stuart was involved in the initial discussions that helped to shape what Informed would become – when it was a kernel of an idea in the heads of our founders, Elly, Ian and Jennie – and was our first Moderator to come on board. We are grateful to Stuart for all of the hard work he has put into Informed and for helping us to realise its creation and launch. We wish Stuart the best of luck in his many on-going projects!

In other personnel news, we have a new Moderator amongst us – Mobeena Khan. As with Stuart, Mobeena was involved with the early conversations and has been a great supporter and advocate for the site. We are delighted to have Mobeena as part of the team!

We have lots of exciting stuff planned for 2016. As ever we appreciate all of you who read, share and get involved with our content. We want you to continue to do so by offering ideas for content, volunteering to write posts, connecting us with relevant stories, etc. So please, get in touch if you want to discuss anything with the team.

#dammitJANET – Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) explained

Simon Barron (@SimonXIX) explains what DDoS is, how it is used and debunks some myths about it.

On 7 December 2015, the academic network provider, Janet, suffered a DDoS attack which partially brought the service down (Martin, 2015). Workers in Higher Education institutions across the UK (and organisations that have their internet access provided by server farms in HEIs) suddenly found their internet connections weren’t working probably while Jisc engineers scrambled to fend off the attack and restore service.

A DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attack is a means of bringing down a server (or a cluster of servers) by flooding it with requests. In normal communication on the web, a local computer (i.e. a Windows desktop PC) sends a request to a server (i.e. by pointing Firefox to e.g. http://theinformed.org.uk/) to serve up a webpage; the server then responds by sending the data (i.e. HTML and CSS files) that makes up the webpage. A DDoS attack sends thousands of requests to a server continually from multiple IP addresses such that the server cannot respond: either from using up all the server’s CPU processing power at once or by filling up the short-term RAM memory of the server causing it to crash.

DDoS (sans the word ‘attack’) can be a valid method of testing the integrity of a server. A developer setting up a web service can perform load testing by incrementally increasing the number of requests sent to a page until it falls down: this gives you the total number of users that should use the service at any one time. A tool like Bees with Machine Guns (https://github.com/newsapps/beeswithmachineguns) uses the power of the Amazon Web Service to perform stress testing.

However DDoS is more effectively lodged in the public consciousness as a weapon of hackers. DDoSing without the express consent of the owner of the server is illegal. DDoSers in the USA have been prosecuted under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) (Coleman, 2014). This weaponised version of DDoS is usually done through botnets. “A botnet is essentially just a collection of computers connected to the Internet, allowing a single entity extra processing power or network connections toward the performance of various tasks including (but not limited to) DDoSing and spam bombing… Participants whose computers are tapped for membership in a botnet usually have no idea that their computer is being used for these purposes. Have you ever wondered why your computer worked so slowly, or strangely? Well, you might have unwittingly participated in a DDoS.” (Coleman, 2014) A computer can become part of a botnet by being infected with a piece of malware.

Another method is a more voluntary form of DDoS using the program Low Orbit Ion Cannon (LOIC), an open-source load testing tool (http://sourceforge.net/projects/loic/). Like its science-fiction namesake, LOIC is simply pointed at a target and then fired: the user enters the IP address of a server and then clicks the large button labelled “IMMA CHARGIN MAH LAZER”. When co-ordinated, a mass group use of LOIC can send thousands of requests at once. However the use of LOIC is not secure: assurances – from the Anonymous #command channel and journalists from sites like Gizmodo – that IP addresses of LOIC-attack participants can not be logged on a targeted server are wrong: “The DDoS’ed site can still monitor its traffic, culling and keeping IP addresses, which can be subsequently used to identify participants.” (Coleman, 2014)

A DDoS attack is fairly simple hacking: it does nothing more than disrupt a service in a way easy to recover from and temporarily take down a public face of a company.

(Monroe, 2011: image licensed as CC BY-NC 2.5)

The real issue is what hacking can be done under the cover of a DDoS attack. While server defences are weakened by devoting processing power to dealing with requests and while sysadmins are distracted fending off the attack, a hacker can covertly perform more malicious hacks like accessing data in a server’s database or changing passwords or planting code or simply ‘rm -rf /’-ing the whole server.

The impetus for this kind of malicious DDoS attack can be political or simply, in the words of hackers, “for the lulz” (Coleman, 2014). DDoS as a tactic for political activism has become associated with the trickster hacker collective, Anonymous, who have used it to take down the websites and servers of various companies or groups. Since DDoS can be used to crash a server, it has been used to take down websites from the Church of Scientology’s site to Sony’s Playstation Network to PayPal (Coleman, 2014).

The use of DDoS as a tool for political activism is hotly debated among hackers. Groups like the Pirate Party and AnonOps (operational planners of Anonymous) disagree about the ethics and efficacy of using DDoS (Coleman, 2014). On one hand are those who argue that DDoSing is nothing more than another “large-scale, rowdy, disruptive [tactic] to draw attention and demand change.” (Coleman, 2014): no different fundamentally from a sit-in protest, a direct action blockade, or an occupation of a physical space. The only differences are squatting on digital space rather than physical space and the increased numbers of participants that can be involved in a protest via DDoS. Anonymous also argue that the visibility of the action and its ability to get the mainstream media’s attention justifies its use to highlight political and social justice issues. In 2013, Anonymous posted a petition on whitehouse.gov asking that DDoS be recognised as a legal form of protesting, the same in kind as the Occupy protests (whitehouse.gov, 2013).

On the other hand, other hackers invoke principles of free speech and freedom of information to decry the use of DDoS. With an absolutist view of free speech, taking a website offline is depriving the company or group that owns the website from expressing their views (via the medium of webpages) and also depriving the public of information. Oxblood Ruffin of the Cult of the Dead Cow hacker collective reasons that “Anonymous is fighting for free speech on the Internet, but it’s hard to support that when you’re DoS-ing and not allowing people to talk. How is that consistent?” (Mills, 2012) When using a botnet, there are also ethical concerns in harnessing someone’s computer without their consent to participate in illegal activity.

On the other other hand, a “more dynamic view of free speech could take power relations into account. By enabling the underdog—the protester or infringed group—to speak as loudly as its more resourceful opponents (in this case, powerful corporations), we might understand a tactic like DDoS as a leveler: a free speech win.” (Coleman, 2014)

In a sample of a chat log from anIRC chatroom, #antiactaplanning (quoted in Coleman, 2014), Anonymous members debated the use of DDoS on a US Government website:

<golum>: Whatever, listen. I’ve heard all the arguments for NOT ddosing. But the truth is we need to wake them up.

[…]

<golum>: I understand that ddosing could potentially harm our cause.

<golum>: But I think the risk is worth it.

<fatalbert>: well i as for myself disagree therefore im not helping with ddos

<golum>: We need attention

<+void>: OMG ITS THE ANONYMOUS, THE ONLY THING THEY DO IS DDOS, OMGOMGOMOGMOMG LETS MAKE ACTA PASS ON POSITIVE

<golum>: No.

<golum>: matty—how did contacting the politicians go?

<BamBam>: Yeah I’ve always kinda hated ddos

<golum>: Look. i’ve heard the arguments I just wanted to say, we should do this.

It’s unclear why Janet, the network enabling internet access for UK HEIs, came under attack this week. At the same time, the Jisc website received a direct DDoS attack as well (Jisc, 2015). It’s worth noting that although internet access through Janet in the UK was disrupted, users were still able to access the wider web by routing their traffic outside of the UK network either through a VPN like Bitmask (https://bitmask.net/) or through the Tor Project’s Tor Browser (https://www.torproject.org/). Such tools are often mistakenly perceived as being used exclusively by hackers, those accessing the ‘Dark Web’, criminals, or terrorists. Following the November 2015 Paris attacks by Daesh, the French Government have openly discussed banning the use of Tor Browser in the same way as Iran or China (Griffin, 2015). In reality, online privacy tools have legitimate and valid uses for defense in computer security: whether against DDoSers or governments and corporations conducting mass digital surveillance.

Whether morally legitimate or not, DDoSing is an effective tactic for hackers and other political activist groups. The core strength of DDoS is that it exploits a weakness in the fundamental principle of the internet: computers using telecommunications networks to request data from one another.

 

References:

Coleman, G., 2014. Hacker, hoaxer, whistleblower, spy: the many faces of Anonymous. London: Verso.

Griffin, A., 2015. ‘France could ban public Wi-Fi and Tor anonymous browsing following Paris attacks’ in The Independent, 2015-12-07 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/france-could-ban-public-wi-fi-and-tor-anonymous-browsing-after-paris-attacks-a6763001.html

Jisc, 2015. ‘DDoS attack disrupting Janet network’ on Jisc website, 2015-12-08 https://www.jisc.ac.uk/news/ddos-attack-disrupting-janet-network-08-dec-2015

Martin, A. J., 2015. ‘UK research network Janet under ongoing and persistent DDoS attack’ on The Register, 2015-12-07 http://www.theregister.co.uk/2015/12/07/janet_under_persistent_ddos_attack/

Mills, E., 2012. ‘Old-time hacktivists: Anonymous, you’ve crossed the line’ on CNET, 2012-03-30 http://www.cnet.com/news/old-time-hacktivists-anonymous-youve-crossed-the-line/

Monroe, R., 2011. ‘CIA’ on xkcd, 2011-08-01 https://xkcd.com/932/

whitehouse.gov, 2013. ‘Make, distributed denial-of-service (DDoS), a legal form of protesting.’ on petitions.whitehouse.gov, 2013-01-07 https://petitions.whitehouse.gov/petition/make-distributed-denial-service-ddos-legal-form-protesting

Toddling into the future

Fireworks

Well, another year has flown by, which means that Informed has just turned 2! In terms of what we’re meant to be doing now, does that put us into the Terrible Two stage, when we should start having temper tantrums? Perhaps though we’ll just skip the misbehaving bit, and get on with the informing plan!

The team took a little bit of a late summer/autumn break, and we’ve had some rearrangements of the responsibilities and makeup of the team, which we will announce soon. We’ve also been making some plans behind the scenes to try out a new venture, which we will also be launching in the near future. It will be something we’ll be looking for volunteers to help with, so if you’re interested in becoming more involved with Informed, keep an eye out for an upcoming announcement.

As always when we look back at our activities over the last year, we’d like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who’s been involved with the Informed project, both as the contributors of excellent articles published on the site, and as the volunteer staff working to solicit and moderate the content. As we are composed of a small team of volunteers, everyone’s contribution to the Informed project is hugely valued, and we thank everyone who’s been involved. But we’re not a static project, so if you feel like you’d like to get involved, or you feel you have an idea for a topic that you’d like to write about, please get in touch with the team via our contact form.

Shelving the Qu’ran

Shelving the Qu'ran
Shelving the Qu’ran. Copyright: Laura Ennis

It caught my eye one afternoon. Sitting atop the cabinet that houses our staff pigeon-holes. I reached up to grab a hold of the green leather-bound book, at the same time asking my colleagues, “What’s this doing here?” Turns out, it was our only copy of the Qur’an in its native language. To begin with, it had lived in the stacks, much like any other Library book. Then someone had complained.

Muslims have varying notions as to the status of the Qu’ran, both as a sacred text, and as a sacred object. But consensus agrees in the case of Arabic editions – where the text is literally the word of god. The Qur’an was published with its own instruction manual as it were, and imparts some direction as to how it should be handled, for example;

Non shall touch but those who are clean. (56:77-79)

The above passage is widely interpreted as meaning that those handling the Qur’an should be physically and spiritually clean. In Islam, this state is known as wudu. The Qur’an itself does not list any special considerations for its storage, but medieval scholars have stipulated numerous special conditions for the use and storage of the Qur’an. For example, the famous Imam and scholar Abu ‘Abdullah Al-Qurtubi wrote in the Tafsir al-Qurtubi;

[do not] place other books upon the Qur’an, which should always be higher than all other books, whether they are books of Sacred Knowledge or something else,

It is for this reason that many Muslims find the shelving of the Qur’an with other books to be offensive and disrespectful. Especially when, as in our case, the shelf they are on is particularly low to the floor. So our copy was moved to the back room where no one could touch it, and placed above eye level where it languished and attracted dust. While this solved the problem, to me it seemed a poor compromise. I’m neither an expert in Library policy, nor religious issues by any means. But I have been working in Libraries for several years now, and by a strange quirk of fate my undergraduate specialisation was in Religious Studies, so it’s safe to say I know enough to speculate on the issue. Moving the book to a place where it wouldn’t be seen or used didn’t seem to be aligned with our mission as a Library, nor particularly respectful to item in question.

The idea that the words of god, or even the name of god, become scared when inscribed is not new, or limited to Islam. In Judaism for example, there are a multitude of names and epithets for god, but any document containing one of the ‘seven names of god’ becomes a holy object. The Megillah details the many prohibitions when handling, or being the presence of, the Torah and the seven holy names of god. Specifically, the Torah is to be placed above other books (Megillah 27a). As in Islam, Jewish instructions for handling sacred texts go one step further – old and damaged items are to be disposed of with as much reverence as possible. For example, in the United Kingdom there is a growing need for the respectful disposal of Jewish texts, many of which are buried en masse in an approved landfill near Stansted. Sikh copies of the Guru Granth Sahib are also treated with special care. It is stored or presented on a throne (takht) and treated like royalty. When they become old or damaged they are given a funeral. There are also strict instructions for carrying and handling of the text; the person carrying the Guru Granth Sahib should be clean, and it is elevated above the head whilst being carried.

Given that Libraries are certainly subject to holding copies of sacred texts I thought it would be relatively easy to locate policies in place at other institutions. While I invest quite a bit of time attempting to locate professional guidance on this issue, after a protracted search could find very little that would help. And after reading through what I did find, I was more confused than ever. The guidance from the Museum Libraries and Archives Council for the management of controversial material makes a brief and vague mention of the issue on the very last page of the report;

5. Stocking of religious texts

5.1 Leicester City policy on the shelving of the Koran and other religious texts

Some libraries in Leicester have received complaints about the Koran not being placed on the top shelves in libraries. Some customers go along the shelves and place the Koran so it is shelved higher than other books. This action arises from the practice in many Muslim homes of the Koran being placed on a high shelf above commonplace things, as it is the word of God.

The authority consulted the Federation of Muslim Organisations in Leicester about this matter, and they advised that all religious texts should be kept on a top shelf together. This meant that no offence is caused, as the scriptures of all the major faiths are given respect in this way, but none is higher than any other.

Unlike the strong language in support of intellectual freedom elsewhere in the document, this section is purposefully vague. It’s not even guidance, simply a retelling of something that another organisation has recommended. I also have to wonder at the placement of this piece of text within the guidance notes. It’s literally on the last page, as if the insertion is piecemeal, or a token measure of inclusion. Further digging uncovered a list of responses to an enquiry about libraries’ practice in shelving the Qur’an and other religious books collated by The Network. Of the respondents, five had made special arrangements for the shelving of the Qur’an, and three had not.

Dissatisfied with the information and guidance I had uncovered, I wrote to the British Library and asked them what their policy on the storage of sacred texts, and if they had had any special precautions or measures when shelving or handling them. The British Library holds an impressive collection of religious materials, including spectacular examples of handwritten and illuminated manuscripts from faiths across the world. The response I received, while not especially helpful, was certainly interesting reading. The British Library does have special provisions for the storage of Sikh sacred texts;

“They are shelved in such a way as to avoid other works touching them or being over them, and are retrieved, installed and returned only by the curator.”

Additionally, anyone wanting to view the items in person, must first make an advance appointment with the Curator of North Indian Languages. This is probably a practical matter as much as anything else, because the Library currently holds the oldest known copy of the Guru Granth Sahib outside of India and it is both culturally significant and fragile – not to mention that digitised copies of these works are now available online. Other special provisions for sacred texts include categorically avoiding the use of pigskin to bind copies of the Torah or Qur’an “to avoid offending the religious sensibilities of those readers most likely to visit the Library to consult such works.”

While I can admire the practicality and in some ways the political correctness of such measures, I can’t say the same for the British Library’s reason for doing so – to avoid giving offence. People have the inalienable right to be offended, but being offended doesn’t make them right. Works of art and items of cultural importance deserve respect for their own sake, not for the fragile sensibilities of those who might one day be offended. Though on this point, I know that not everyone will agree with me – especially within the context of religious material.

However I would ask, what does it say about us as a profession that we’re unwilling to officially discuss this issue? I discovered very little in the way of guidance, discussion or debate on this particular topic. Meanwhile, we devote a whole week to celebrating banned books, and are willing to publicly criticise government web filters. When did information professionals become so timid? Is it acceptable for us as professionals to single out items for special treatment for no other reason than ‘someone might get offended,’? Would you be comfortable applying this policy to other works in your collections?

In my own Library our copy of the Qur’an was eventually moved. It now sits on the top tier of the reference shelf behind our circulation desk where it can be seen by patrons and is joined by works from other faiths, known as the ′Ahl al-Kitāb, or People of the Book.

By Laura Ennis

Speak up about the hidden consequences of library cuts

Image c/o Ian Clark on Flickr.

On the day of the Speak Up for Libraries Conference we hear from Alan Wylie, a public librarian and campaigner for public libraries, about the consequences of library cuts on outreach programmes in libraries.

We’ve all seen the headlines, and as a library campaigner I’ve been unfortunate enough to see them every day, announcing cuts to library service budgets and the closure of libraries but what about the hidden cuts, the fine detail tucked away in the ‘consultation’ or ‘re-organisation’ report, what damage are these cuts causing?

Concerns about hidden cuts to library services are not new, as these articles from 2010/11 demonstrate:

“The cuts will just make it harder for libraries to provide outreach work and school visits – everything around making books accessible.”
http://www.theguardian.com/books/2010/oct/20/spending-cuts-libraries-at-risk

“Reader development staff – the people who run activities such as library reading groups, author events and outreach work to schools – are also being culled wholesale in some parts of the country.”
http://www.theguardian.com/books/2011/mar/25/hidden-cuts-undermining-local-libraries

Since 2010/11 the situation facing public libraries has deteriorated rapidly with CIPFA estimating 3000-4000 library staff lost (900+ in London alone) but what the figures don’t often show and the headlines rarely announce is the loss of specialist staff and services. For example staff in outreach teams who work with nurseries, children’s centres and schools to promote the enjoyment of reading and the importance of literacy to young children and their parents/guardians. One such person is Dave Pickering who until earlier this year worked as an ‘Early Years Library Outreach Worker’ with Enfield Libraries until:

“Last month the team of five people that I was a part of was reduced to a team of one person.”

Dave was very clear about the impact of these cuts:

“I worked with children and parents across Enfield. The Guardian is currently tracking the “Enfield Experiment”. Like many parts of London, it is a place where you will find shocking disparities between the wealth and lifestyles of people in one area compared to those in another. I moved around the borough, working both in communities you might describe as affluent and those you might see as deprived.

My service was valued in both places, but the impact of its loss – and the loss of other even more essential and life-enhancing services – will be felt most keenly by the poorest and most at risk, rather than by people who can pay for private children’s services and who don’t need the extra help to combat the social conditions they find themselves in. We’re not all in it together, because the impact of each cut is vastly different for each person depending on their situation.

The government is literally taking things away from children; it is dividing and dismantling communities and claiming that this is an unfortunate reality.”

Recently in Hampshire very similar cuts to those already made in Enfield have been proposed:

“The proposals are part of a package of measures , which include reducing the mobile library service in Hart and Rushmoor and ending the family library link service
One aspect of the cuts is to disband the library outreach team, which promotes the use of the library service to playgroups, schools and community groups.”

And I’ve also been told that part of the new proposals for Havering Libraries include cutting the team that promotes the Summer Reading Challenge. Nationally this annual event is a public libraries success story:

  • Research shows that taking part in the Summer Reading Challenge can help children keep up their reading skills during the long summer holiday
  • A record 810,089 children took part in the 2013 Summer Reading Challenge.

In January 2014 the Save Wolverhampton Libraries Campaign wrote an open letter to the Wolverhampton Chief Executive outlining their concerns relating to proposed cuts to the library service including those to “services outside the core role of lending books, DVDs and audio”:

“The proposed cuts constitute closure by stealth of one of our city’s most precious assets. We are especially concerned about the removal of services outside the core role of lending books, DVDs and audio; we refer you to the many roles carried out by our city’s librarians of which the following is not an exhaustive list:

  • Support with CV writing
  • Support with job searching
  • Support with form filling
  • Support regarding benefits
  • Support or assistance with IT and associated training
  • School holiday and Saturday activities
  • Outreach with schools
  • Outreach with community groups”

In the 2013 report  ‘The public library service under attack‘ commissioned by Unison and written by Steve Davies of the University of Cardiff, the figures show that although building based activities appeared to be holding steady or increasing, outreach was being cut:

“Although some respondents reported an increase in provision in some services (a quarter reported an increase in Baby Bounce and Rhyme time), close to one fifth reported cuts to both school holiday activities and to outreach with local schools (19% and 20% respectively).”

 John Vincent, co-author of the blog ‘Social Justice Librarian’ and coordinator of ‘The Network’, recently raised similar concerns about the demise of outreach and targeted services to ‘marginalised groups’ in a recent piece he wrote on libraries and social justice:

“We know some of the reasons why this is happening: lack of library staff, time and resources; communities overwhelmed by other demands on their time; possibly political views about ‘new arrivals’.
But is there more to it? Could it be that, surreptitiously, we’ve become worn down by the calls to return to building-based services, to concentrate on existing users and their demands, to abandon ‘risky’ types of service, or services that do not show ‘high returns’ such as increased issue figures and visitor numbers? We do know that the sort of work that is required to make public libraries really relevant is time-intensive, and often involves relatively small numbers of users.”

Richard Lyda an Outreach Librarian based in the US outlines the crucial importance and the positive benefits of his role:

“My experiences teaching for Head Start made me appreciate how important community outreach can be for so many people. Families need to know that resources exist before they can access them, and effective community outreach is a great way to spread the word about valuable community resources.”

“I would suggest not to overlook outreach as a mode of service in public libraries. I’ve had a very gratifying and fulfilling experience in my almost 5 years as an outreach librarian. I get to see the service positively affecting youth, families, and seniors every day.”

In my opinion outreach is crucial to the relevance, integrity and survival of public libraries without it we are in danger of losing touch with those in our communities that need our services most.

It helps to ground us and to break down the ‘professional in an official building’ barrier, it also helps to loosen the ‘footfall & issues’ noose put around our necks by those only interested in quantative data.

 

Happy birthday Informed!

Today is exactly one year since the launch of Informed, so the team thought it would be a good chance to reflect on what we’ve achieved and look ahead to what we want to achieve over the next year.

Image c/o Elaine Ashton on Flickr.

But first, some Oscars-style thank yous!

We would like to thank our amazing moderators who read all of the content and check it against the contributor guidelines. These volunteers give up their time, sometimes at short notice, to play a crucial role in the smooth running of the site. Not to mention that all of them were involved in helping to shape the site from fuzzy idea to fully launched in just one month.

We also want to thank the authors who have contributed posts on a wide range of topics and to a consistently high standard. Again these are volunteers and we appreciate the effort that everyone puts into their posts. We have approached people to write for us, but most have volunteered which is heartening as it shows that this space was needed.

It’s ok, you can put away your hankies now.

So it’s been an amazing year. The team are incredibly proud of the quality, quantity and range of content that is hosted on Informed. We set up Informed to provide a neutral space for people to write blogs (with anonymity if required) on information issues with a wider societal impact, but in this first year it has become so much more. We are proud to host the LIS open access declaration, which has gathered nearly 100 signatories from LIS professionals who have publicly committed to publishing their research only open access. Alongside posts about the role of volunteers in CILIP, the role of LIS professionals in disasters and falling numbers of LIS students and available courses, we feel that the remit has expanded to include professional reflection without straying into esoteric introspection. Posts have covered topical issues such as a petition to stop The Sun being available in Islington public libraries, policy initiatives like increasing access to research via public libraries and internet access in prisons. Themes have also emerged in the content of Informed, with a number of posts on open access, web filtering and several using FOI requests to gather important data.

Now we need to start thinking about how to keep up the momentum and ensure that this next year is as good as the last. Firstly we are planning to be more proactive about approaching authors, both for topical and more general posts. Secondly we are going to draw up a publishing schedule so that we can commission articles further in advance to give authors more time. Finally we would like to get more of you involved with the site! Whether you would like to sign up to join our team of moderators, submit a post to Informed, or suggest topics you’d like to see covered. We’d love to hear from you via our contact form or in the comments below.